Derbent is a city located in Republic of Dagestan, Russia. It is the oldest city in the whole country. This beautiful city is in the shore of Caspian Sea. Derbent is a place of history; it was established by Persian king Kabadh to protect Persian possessions against the attack of the Chazars because this city was a strategic location in Caucasus. Many people associated this city to the legendary Gates of Alexander, which was built to keep the uncivilized barbarians from the north from invading the south.
This impressive city is full of historic landmarks and those sites are included in UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, such as the Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent. These fortification systems consist of two-parallel defense walls which are 3,6 kilometers long, Naryn-Kala Citadel which includes baths and the oldest mosque in Russia, and the Ancient City which is located between those two defese walls. Another activity you can do in Derbent is visiting the market and tea stalls within the walls, which still remained since the 6th century. Because it was ruled by Persians, Arabs, Mongols, Timurids and many other ancient kingdoms, you can see a very rich culture of Islam, Christian and Jewish here.
The best time to visit is from May to October, but if you plan to go to this city in other months is alright. For available transportations, there are two daily commuter trains Makhackhala and the journey takes three hours. You can take train from Moscow and other cities as well, such as Saint Petersburg, Rostov-on-the-Don, and Yekaterinburg.